Perception, Planning, and Control

© Russ Tedrake, 2020-2023

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**Note:** These are working notes used for a course being taught
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Throughout these notes we've introduced the basic rules of spatial algebra. I find myself looking back at them often! For ease of reference, I've compiled them again here. These make heavy use of our "monogram notation".

The Drake documentation also has a very nice summary of the multibody quantities and how they map to the monogram notation.

As we introduced here, we use ${}^Bp^A_C$ to denote a position of point or frame $A$ relative to point or frame $B$ expressed in frame $C$. We use ${}^BR^A$ to denote the orientation of frame $A$ measured from frame $B$; unlike vectors, pure rotations do not have an additional "expressed in" frame. Similarly, we use ${}^BX^A$ to denote the pose/transform of frame $A$ measured from frame $B$. We do not use the "expressed in" frame subscript for pose; we always want the pose expressed in the reference frame.

The basic rules of spatial algebra are as follows:

- Positions expressed in the same frame can be added when their reference and target symbols match: \begin{equation}{}^Ap^B_F + {}^Bp^C_F = {}^Ap^C_F.\end{equation} Addition is commutative, and the additive inverse is well defined: \begin{equation}{}^Ap^B_F = - {}^Bp^A_F.\end{equation} Those should be pretty intuitive; make sure you confirm them for yourself.
- Multiplication by a rotation can be used to change the "expressed in"
frame: \begin{equation}{}^Ap^B_G = {}^GR^F {}^Ap^B_F.\end{equation} You
might be surprised that a rotation alone is enough to change the
expressed-in frame, but it's true. The position of the expressed-in frame
does
*not*affect the relative position between two points. - Rotations can be multiplied when their reference and target symbols match: \begin{equation}{}^AR^B \: {}^BR^C = {}^AR^C.\end{equation} The inverse operation is also simply defined: \begin{equation}\left[{}^AR^B\right]^{-1} = {}^BR^A.\end{equation} When the rotation is represented as a rotation matrix, this is literally the matrix inverse, and since rotation matrices are orthonormal, we also have $R^{-1}=R^T.$
- Transforms bundle this up into a single, convenient notation when positions are measured from a frame (and the same frame they are expressed in): \begin{equation}{}^Gp^A = {}^GX^F {}^Fp^A = {}^Gp^F + {}^Fp^A_G = {}^Gp^F + {}^GR^F {}^Fp^A.\end{equation}
- Transforms compose: \begin{equation}{}^AX^B {}^BX^C =
{}^AX^C,\end{equation} and have an inverse
\begin{equation}\left[{}^AX^B\right]^{-1} = {}^BX^A.\end{equation} Please
note that for transforms, we generally do
*not*have that $X^{-1}$ is $X^T,$ though it still has a simple form.

As we introduced here, we represent the rate of
change in pose using a six-component vector for *spatial
velocity*: \begin{equation}{}^AV^B_C = \begin{bmatrix} {}^A\omega^B_C \\
{}^A\text{v}^B_C \end{bmatrix}.\end{equation} ${}^AV^B_C$ is the spatial velocity
(also known as a "twist") of frame $B$ measured in frame $A$ expressed in frame $C$,
${}^A\omega^B_C \in \Re^3$ is the
*angular velocity* (of frame $B$ measured in $A$ expressed in frame
$C$), and ${}^A\text{v}^B_C \in \Re^3$ is the *translational velocity*
(along with the same shorthands as for positions). Spatial velocities fit nicely into our spatial
algebra:

- Velocities add when they are expressed in the same frame: \begin{gather} {}^A\text{v}^B_F + {}^B\text{v}^C_F = {}^A\text{v}^C_F, \qquad {}^A\omega^B_F + {}^B\omega^C_F = {}^A\omega^C_F,\end{gather} and have the additive inverse, ${}^AV^C_F = - {}^CV^A_F,$.
- Rotations can be used to change between the "expressed-in" frames: \begin{equation} {}^A\text{v}^B_G = {}^GR^F {}^A\text{v}^B_F, \qquad {}^A\omega^B_G = {}^GR^F {}^A\omega^B_F.\end{equation}
- Translational velocities compose across frames with: \begin{equation}{}^A\text{v}^C_F = {}^A\text{v}^B_F + {}^B\text{v}^C_F + {}^A\omega^B_F \times {}^Bp^C_F.\end{equation}
- This reveals that additive inverse for translational velocities is not obtained by switching the reference and measured-in frames; it is slightly more complicated: \begin{equation}-{}^A\text{v}^B_F = {}^B\text{v}^A_F + {}^A\omega^B_F \times {}^Bp^A_F.\end{equation} .

As we introduced here, we define a
six-component vector for *spatial
force*, using the monogram notation:
\begin{equation}F^{B_p}_{{\text{name}},C} = \begin{bmatrix}
\tau^{B_p}_{\text{name},C} \\ f^{B_p}_{\text{name},C} \end{bmatrix} \quad \text{ or,
if you prefer } \quad \left[F^{B_p}_{\text{name}}\right]_C = \begin{bmatrix}
\left[\tau^{B_p}_{\text{name}}\right]_C \\ \left[f^{B_p}_{\text{name}}\right]_C
\end{bmatrix}.\end{equation} $F^{B_p}_{\text{name},C}$ is the named spatial force
applied to a point, or frame origin, $B_p$, expressed in frame $C$. The name is
optional, and the expressed in frame, if unspecified, is the world frame. For forces
in particular, it is recommended that we include the body, $B$, that the force is
being applied to in the symbol for the point $B_p$, especially since we will often
have equal and opposite forces.

Spatial forces fit neatly into our spatial algebra:

- Spatial forces add when they are applied to the same body in the same frame, e.g.: \begin{equation}F^{B_p}_{\text{total},C} = \sum_i F^{B_p}_{i,C} .\end{equation}
- Shifting a spatial force from one application point, $B_p$, to another point, $B_q$, uses the cross product: \begin{equation} f^{B_q}_C = f^{B_p}_C, \qquad \tau^{B_q}_C = \tau^{B_p}_C + {}^{B_q}p^{B_p}_C \times f^{B_p}_C.\label{eq:spatial_force_shift}\end{equation}
- As with all spatial vectors, rotations can be used to change between the "expressed-in" frames: \begin{equation} f^{B_p}_D = {}^DR^C f^{B_p}_C, \qquad \tau^{B_p}_D = {}^DR^C \tau^{B_p}_C.\end{equation}

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